搜尋
  • PROMES Real Estate

【軌道經濟真的有為我們城市帶來更好的發展嗎?(下)|時事新思維】

已更新:2021年12月21日

Does the current rail economy really help us form a better developed urban city? ( Part Two )


Please scroll down the page for English article

 

延續上篇的內容,下篇將進一步討論現行軌道經濟在台灣發展現況所面臨的困境與挑戰。

上篇文章連結:【軌道經濟真的有為我們城市帶來更好的發展嗎?(上)|時事新思維】

Click here for the Part One of the article



問題三、台灣無法充分發揮土地夜間經濟價值

Problem 3: Taiwan is unable to make full use of the night-time economic value of the land.


台灣人口聚集密度高、交通便捷,具有夜間經濟發展的潛力。根據聯合報(消失夜經濟/上,2020/11/20 蔡容喬、張曼蘋,註6)指出「夜間經濟」指由晚上6時至隔天早上6時的各類型經濟文化活動,包括餐飲、旅遊、學習、休閒及娛樂等。英國夜間産業協會(Night Time Industries Association,註7)統計,夜間經濟收入每年達660億元英鎊;美國紐約夜間經濟年產值351億美元,就業人口為29.9萬人,全年總薪資達131億元美金,比起勞動、製造業,平均多了3%到4%薪資(註8)。大陸也積極發展夜間經濟,其夜間經濟規模在2019年達到人民幣26萬4312.5億元(註9)。然而發展夜間經濟的其中主要因素即是人流,人流則仰賴交通便利性,但因台灣大眾交通運輸工具存在營運班次時間上的限制,使得夜間消費族群仰賴大眾運輸者時間一到就只能匆匆忙忙上車回家。這造成了台灣夜間經濟的發展受限,大部分營業活動都只能在白天創造價值。但反過來想,如果我們能夠排除這些限制,是不是就可以讓土地發揮更大的經濟價值?


Taiwan has a high density of population with convenient transportation, which can help explore the development potential for night time economy. According to the United Daily News (Disappearing Night Economy/One, 2020/11/20 Cai Rongqiao, Zhang Manping) , "night time economy" refers to various types of economic and cultural activities from 6 pm to 6 am the next morning, including catering, tourism, learning, leisure, and entertainment. According to the Night Time Industries Association (Night Time Industries Association) in UK, the annual income of the night time economy is 66 billion pounds; in New York it is 35.1 billion U.S. dollars, the employed population is 299,000, and the total annual salary reaches 13.1 billion U.S. dollars, exceeding that of labor and manufacturing by 3% to 4%. The mainland China is also actively developing the night time economy, and its scale reached RMB 26,431.25 billion in 2019. However, one of the main critical elements for the development of the night time economy is the flow of people, which depends on the accessibility of transportation. Due to the limitation of the operating hours of public transportation in Taiwan, consumers at night time has to return home before the railway station is closed. This has restrained the development of Taiwan’s economy at night time, and thus most business activities can only create value during the day time. However, if we can loosen those restrictions, we may exert greater economic value for the land.


解決之道:探討夜間經濟產品規劃的可能性

Solution: Explore the feasibility of developing night time economy.


台灣可以考慮將大眾交通運輸工具營運時間延長,有利於增加市區夜間活動對周邊區域的可及性,且夜間經濟相關行業就業機會增加能夠吸引產業移入並漸漸形成聚落。英國倫敦自從推出週五、週六通霄地鐵後,使整個城市二十四小時不打烊,此為軌道經濟與夜間經濟的交互作用絕佳典範,該城市不論日間夜間都能透過商業活動產生價值。回到台灣,如果台北捷運能夠在深夜加開班次,以目前雙北地區完整的路線網絡來看,將可以擴大夜間商業活動的服務範圍。


Taiwan officials can consider extending the operating hours of public transportation, which may help to increase the accessibility of night time activities in the surrounding areas. Moreover, the increase in employment opportunities of night time economy can help industries to gradually form an industry ecosystem. Since the launch of the round-the-clock subway in London on Friday and Saturday, the entire city has stayed active for consecutive 24 hours on Fridays and Saturdays. This is a perfect example of the rail economy and the night time economy being intertwined with each other and that the city can generate economic value through commercial activities both day and night. Back to Taiwan, if the Taipei MRT can extend its operating hours for a few more hours , with its extensive network, it will be able to largely expand its service accessibility to the majority of commercial activities at night time.


此外,台灣可以規劃具有開放夜間經濟設施的特定區域。以林口特定區為例來探討發展夜間經濟的可能性的話,該特定區未來將發展影視產業,目前已經有Outlet購物商城,未來也規劃影視娛樂城、展演中心以及媒體總部園區等功能,若未來能夠搭配放寬夜間通勤時間以及相關娛樂購物設施營運時間的延長,將能夠為這片土地帶來日間以及夜間可觀的人潮與經濟效益。


Furthermore, governments can designate specific areas allowing private operators running its facilities at night time. Take Linkou as an example, the district has been designated as the multi media center area. Currently, Mistui outlet mall is already set up in the area with more new developments to come, including a multi-media entertainment building, an exhibition center, and a media theme park. If the extension of public transportation operating hours can be implemented while all the developments are complete, then it will be able to attract considerable crowds and generate economic benefits to Linkou district at the night time.


不過除了商場、餐廳、酒吧、夜店,台灣還有什麼樣的夜間活動選擇?以台灣豐富的歷史文化古蹟為例,雕塑、建物都可以帶給遊客古色古香的氛圍。規劃區內也可以設有大劇院、音樂廳等大型公共文化場地,不定期舉辦表演活動。以紐約百腦匯的周遭規劃來看,夜間經濟產品的規劃除了可以將周邊規劃為熱鬧的餐廳、酒吧之外,也能打造音樂表演場地、歌劇院、美術館、博物館、百老匯等,給予民眾充滿文藝氣息的夜間生活體驗。


So what are current alternatives to night time activities other than shopping malls, restaurants, bars, night markets, Karaoke and night clubs? Taiwan can leverage its rich historical and cultural attractions to give visitors a unique experience at night time. Large-scale public cultural venues such as grand theaters and concert halls can also hold night time shows in the venues. Take the Broadway in New York as an example, the night time venues can involve live restaurants and bars, music performance center, opera house, art gallery, museums, to name just a few, nearby the rail or MRT stations. Events take place in those venues with easy access to public transportation can allow people to enjoy night time entertainment experience, which benefits the local economy.


實際上在南台灣,高雄市已經在探討如何實現軌道經濟以協助創造都市夜間經濟。根據聯合報(消失夜經濟/上,2020/11/20 蔡容喬、張曼蘋,註6)高雄市議員郭建盟曾給予發展高雄夜間經濟的建言,也獲得市長的指示整合局處推動夜間經濟,考量成立推動夜間經濟辦公室,連結夜間經濟活動產業鏈,並增加廠商在高雄舉辦大型活動的意願,創造更多產值與就業機會。可以透過目前衛武營藝術文化中心、高雄展覽館、流行音樂中心及郵輪旅運大樓硬體建設投資(高達250億元),積極在會展、藝文展演、郵輪觀光及流行影視音樂等新興產業發展夜間經濟,透過輕軌、捷運串連四大場館,連結駁二及港區,藉此帶動高雄低薪服務業轉型及高值化。


In fact, in southern Taiwan, Kaohsiung City is already on the track of learning how to realize rail economy to help create urban night time economy. According to the United Daily News (Disappearing Night Economy/On, 2020/11/20 Tsai Rongqiao, Zhang Manping) Kaohsiung City Councilor Kuo Jianmeng gave advice on the development of Kaohsiung’s night time economy, and was also given permission from the Mayor. The Mayor considered to establish a Special Desk to promote the night time economy, by harnessing the industry ecosystem from night time activities to its best use, and increasing the willingness of events operators to hold large-scale events in Kaohsiung, thus creating more output value and job opportunities. Through the current urban infrastructure investment (up to 25 billion NTD) of Weiwuying National Kaohsiung Center for the Arts, Kaohsiung Exhibition Hall, Pop Music Center and Cruise Passenger Transport Building, we can cultivate a culture and entertainment ecosystem such as conventions and exhibitions, art and cultural performances, cruise tourism, and film, television and music by connecting the Port 2 and other port area with the light rail and MRT, thereby driving the transformation of Kaohsiung to an urban city with high value added economy.


問題四、台灣車站周邊道路行人動線零碎,影響車站周邊發展

Problem 4: Taiwan’s pedestrian routes around rail stations are fragmented, breaking up the links between the surrounding new developments.


台灣大部分的台鐵、高鐵站的動線結構只有在車站本棟建築內有所連結,車站外與周遭土地的其他建築物之間缺少實質的聯結。這樣的整體規劃之下,乘客出站後到達周邊地點的通行需要花更多通行時間以及面臨天氣變化帶來的不便性。從整體面規劃角度思考,通行上的不便性是不是會造成旅客在這些地方消費的意願降低?這樣會不會對車站周邊商圈的營運帶來衝擊?因爲人潮即是錢潮,對行人不友善的動線規劃會使商圈的潛在價值無法被充分利用。


Most pedestrian routes around the Taiwan Railway and High-speed Railway stations are connected within the station site itself, but there is no connection between the station and other buildings surrounding it. Passengers have to spend more time commuting and experience the inconvenience caused during the rainy day, reducing the ease of accessibility. Such feeling of inconvenience may lead to less consumer flow to less accessible places, indirectly having negative impact on the robustness of the commercial district around the station. As a rule of thumb, more people attracted to the area indicate there will be higher chance of earning consumer’s pocket money. Hence, if the route planning around rail station is not user friendly, then it is likely that it will inhibit the potential value of the business district from being fully utilized.


解決之道:整體動線立體橫向貫穿連結

Solution: Schedule pedestrian routes that well connect surrounding areas.


日本在車站動線規劃上是個不錯的榜樣。日本車站的動線結構立體化並且橫向貫穿連結,乘客可以很方便地從車站到達周邊地點。例如澀谷站將整個車站區域規劃為立體交通廣場,內有天橋、地下行人道銜接周圍各個建築物,方便行人穿梭。且該車站規劃人車分流,行人、車輛不互相干擾,有助於交通順暢。而新宿車站設有規劃完善的人行天橋系統,行人出站後可以藉由人行天橋步行至周遭區域。旅客也能選擇從地下道出站搭公車,轉乘相當便利。規劃者在安排動線時,應將思考方式從「點」的動線發展改為「面」的動線設計,才能讓民眾的消費旅程暢行無阻,為土地帶來價值最大化的效益。


Japan is a good model in traffic design & planning around rail station. The pedestrian route within and nearby rail stations are three-dimensional and cross-connected horizontally, so passengers can easily reach the surrounding locations from the station. For example, Shibuya Station plans the entire station area as a three-dimensional traffic zone, with flyovers and underground walkways connecting the surrounding buildings. In addition, the station is planned to separate pedestrians and vehicles, so that pedestrians and vehicles do not interfere with each other, which helps smooth traffic. Shinjuku Station has a well-planned pedestrian bridge system, and pedestrian can walk to the surrounding area through the pedestrian bridge after exiting the station. Passengers can also choose to take a bus from the exit of the underpass, which is quite convenient. Governments or local developers should change their way of thinking from the development of “single site” to the design of “entire zone or area” when arranging the pedestrian routes, so that the passengers’ consumption journey can be unimpeded, and the benefits of maximizing the value of the land can be generated.


問題五、台灣需降低建築碳排放

Problem 5: Taiwan needs to reduce building construction’s carbon emissions around the development of rail station area.


在軌道經濟的帶動下,台灣的都市規劃以車站為中心做整體區域的開發,因此車站周遭建築採納綠建築或環境永續規劃措施可以達到標竿典範效果,引導整體區域建築綠建築及環境永續化。根據「2021年氣候變遷績效指標,註10」(Climate Change Performance Index,CCPI 2021)排名,台灣在61個國家中排名第57名,其中在Greenhouse Gas Emissions (GHG Emissions)中的得分是非常低。 足可見台灣在節能減碳措施上還有很大的進步空間。事實上,在台灣有許多天然災害問題都與排碳、能源消耗有關,例如在高樓林立的都會區當中常見的熱島效應,其中一個形成原因是都市綠地不足,水泥建築不斷吸熱而造成溫度上升,也會因為更多綠地消失而產生更多的二氧化碳。那麼,在綠色環保時代趨勢下,該如何做才能在建築過程達到節能減碳,以緩和這些氣候災害,並為不動產帶來更高的環境永續價值?


Driven by the rail economy, the overall urban planning in Taiwan mostly centers on the railway station. Therefore, the adoption of green buildings or eco-friendly planning for the development surrounding the station can set a good example and guide for the overall building construction in Taiwan. According to the “2021 Climate Change Performance Index” (CCPI 2021) ranking, Taiwan ranks 57th out of 61 countries, and its score in the Greenhouse Gas Emissions (GHG Emissions) item is very poor. This shows that there is still much room for improvement in energy-saving and carbon-reduction measures in Taiwan. In fact, many natural disasters in Taiwan are related to carbon emission and energy consumption. For example, the urban heat island effect is common in metropolitan areas with tall buildings. One of its cause is the lack of urban green space and the continuous heat absorption of cement buildings, which raises the temperature of the surrounding area. Under the goal of achieving global environmental sustainability, what should be done to achieve energy saving and carbon reduction in the construction process, so as to alleviate these climatic disasters and bring higher environmental sustainability value to real estate?


解決之道:讓綠色生態成為建築特色

Solution: Make green ecology become an architectural feature.


英國Mayfield車站周遭規劃非常重視永續性。舉例來說,該區建築採用新型低能耗建築材料「石墨烯混凝土」,可以比一般混凝土建築少用接近30%的材料,大幅降低原料生產時的碳排放,減緩城市當中的熱島效應問題。另外,為了節省用水,Mayfield車站社區於各處設置雨水回收系統,將收集來的雨水用來沖馬桶、灌溉園區植物。位於日本東京的豊島之森也是生態建築很好的案例。整個建物由太陽能板、綠化板、散熱板等不同功能的構件覆蓋而成,而構件的配置會依照建築的高度、方位而有所不同。例如在容易受風、雨、噪音等環境影響的地方配置綠化板;在日照充足的地方配置太陽能板。此外,該建築也設置挑空空間、陽光煙囪等環保設計,能夠借用自然光、自然風等大自然的資源而達到節能的效果。我們可以看到Mayfield車站以及豊島之森在不動產的規劃設計上都很注重環保、生態概念,可做為台灣未來設計之參考。


The urban planning around Mayfield Station in the United Kingdom attaches great importance to sustainability. For example, the buildings in this area use a new type of low-energy building material "graphene concrete", which can reduce material use by nearly 30% compared with ordinary concrete buildings, greatly reducing the carbon emissions during the construction process, and alleviating the urban heat island effect in the city. In addition, in order to save water, the Mayfield Station community has set up rainwater recycling systems, and the rainwater collected can be used to flush toilets or irrigate plants in the park. The Toshima Forest in Tokyo, Japan is also a good example of ecological architecture. The entire building is covered by components such as solar panels, greening panels, and heat dissipation panels. The configuration of the components will vary according to the height and orientation of the building. For example, green panels are installed in places that are easily affected by wind, rain, noise, etc.; solar panels are installed in places with sufficient sunshine. In addition, the building is also equipped with eco-friendly designs, which can take advantage of natural resources such as natural light and wind to save energy. We can tell that the planning as well as design of Mayfield Station and Toshima Forest pay a lot of attention to environmental protection and ecological concepts, which can be used as a reference for the future design of buildings at or nearby rail stations in Taiwan.


建築設計結合綠色生態不僅能夠順應綠色生態的趨勢,也能透過完善的整體建築設計,形成地區的觀光地標。例如舊金山中央車站將整個車站的頂層蓋一空中公園「Salesforce Park」,其主要特色為站區整片園林360度被高樓商廈所包圍,因此形成名符其實的城市綠洲景觀。同樣位於美國的知名景點The High Line即是由廢棄的紐約舊鐵道改建而成的城市公園,其特色為依照鐵道沿線風景設計步道景觀,以植栽的質地、顏色呈現沿路不斷變化的生態,與景觀融合,成功吸引旅客並帶動周邊景點發展。另外,建築結合綠色生態也能夠減緩熱島效應。植物在進行蒸散作用時會消耗能量,使周邊空氣降溫冷卻;而綠色生態也能夠達到遮蔽建築物的效果,以阻絕熱輻射,讓居民能夠享受更優質的都市生活。


Combining architectural design with green ecology not only conforms to the trend of green ecology, but also forms a tourist landmark in the region. For example, San Francisco Central Station covers the top floor of the station with a sky park called "Salesforce Park." Its main feature is that the entire garden of the station area is 360-degree surrounded by high-rise commercial buildings, thus forming a veritable urban oasis landscape. The High Line, a well-known attraction also located in the New York, is an urban park converted from an old railway track. The landscape integration has successfully attracted tourists and promoted the development of surrounding scenic spots. In addition, the combination of building and green ecology can also slow down the urban heat island effect. When plants undergo evapotranspiration, they consume energy to cool the surrounding air; the green ecology can also block thermal radiation from buildings, allowing residents to enjoy a better urban life.


結語

Conclusion


軌道經濟確實提升了車站周遭土地利用的效率。然而,在都市規劃同質性過高的問題下,我們可以發現軌道經濟對於區域商圈規劃的影響還有很大的進步空間。而土地價值提升受到限制也暗示著土地還有很多的開發潛力。如果我們能夠從整體面規劃策略考量去改善上述問題並將產品規劃差異化,就可以發揮軌道經濟的最大價值,享受更豐富多元的城市生活:賦予不動產獨特功能定位,我們能夠平衡商圈區域發展;規劃文化藝術設施,我們可以有更多休閒娛樂的選擇;鬆綁對於鐵路機構的法規限制,我們可以更加通盤整體考量土地規劃,做出更有特色的商圈;放寬大眾運輸營運時間,我們可以發展更活絡的夜間經濟;改良橫向動線規劃,我們可以振興車站周邊商圈帶來更多人流;推動軌道車站及周遭產品規劃環境永續建築,我們可以享受更高品質的生活空間,也協助台灣未來成為全球節能減碳的模範生。期許將來,台灣車站周遭的發展能夠以國外成功的軌道車站周遭土地不動產規劃案例為基礎,走出一條屬於自己的路,為城市帶來更好的發展。


Overall, from our above discussion, the rail economy has indeed improved the efficiency of land use around the station. However, it raises the problem of high homogeneity products in urban planning. It can be learnt from the above that there is still room for improvement concerning urban development around rail station. The limited increase in land value also implies that the land has a lot of development potential to be explored. If we can take the overall planning strategy into account to solve the above problems and differentiate product planning for different places, we can give full play to the maximum value of the rail economy and enjoy a richer and more diverse urban life: by giving real estate unique functional positioning, the development of the business districts between old and new can be balanced ; by planning cultural and artistic facilities, people can be provided with more leisure and entertainment choices; by loosening the legal restrictions on railway institutions, government can comprehensively consider the development more from the overall land planning perspective, and make a more distinctive business district without expensing the old business district; by relaxing the operation hours of public transportation, cities can develop a more flexible night time economy and fully explore the land value potential; by improving the pedestrian route planning, cities can revitalize the business district around the station without causing more inaccessible blocks; by promoting environmentally sustainable buildings, people can enjoy a higher-quality sustainable environment, and help Taiwan become a role model of global energy saving and carbon reduction in the future. We hope that in the future, the development around rail stations in Taiwan can one day be referenced as successful real estate planning cases abroad, and take a path of its own to bring better urban environment in its people.



點我回到上一篇:【軌道經濟真的有為我們城市帶來更好的發展嗎?(上)|時事新思維】

Click here for the Part One of the article



照片來源:今周刊報導資料(註11



# 軌道經濟 # 都市規劃 # 不動產開發

# 不動產產品定位 # 資產價值最大化

# 諾締不動產

# CreateBestAssetValue


引用文獻來源

註6:https://vip.udn.com/vip/story/121942/5028211?

註7:http://www.ccpit.org/Contents/Channel_4219

註8:https://www1.nyc.gov/site/mome/nightlife/economic-impact-study.page

註9:http://news.xinhua08.com/a/20200709/1945760.shtml

註10:https://udn.com/news/story/6809/5075139

註11:https://www.businesstoday.com.tw/article/category/80404/post



116 次查看0 則留言